Redo Cardiac Surgeries

Cardiac surgery requiring resternotomy (so-called ‘redo’ surgery) is technically difficult and carries a higher operative risk than a first-time operation. The particular problems are well recognised and include difficulty with access to the heart (due to adhesions, scarring, fibrosis or calcification around the operative site) making dissection and suture placement difficult, prolonged operation times and increased postoperative mortality and morbidity.